所有学生都受益于具有结构和明确期望的课堂设置。在包含ODD的学生的普通教育环境中,以及在自足设置中,期望是清晰,明确,并且最重要的是,这一点至关重要。成功课堂的最重要元素是:结构化环境:关于如何组织课堂的一些假设可能不适合有ODD的学生。将儿童分成四人一组的座位安排可能适用于儿童被高度期望抚养的环境,但可能会为患有ODD的儿童造成破坏性行为的机会太多。患有ODD的学生经常使用座位安排作为高度戏剧的场合,这更多地是关于避免工作而非人际关系动态。请记住,你的角色是成为一名教师,而不是一名治疗师。按行或成对安排学生通常是开始学年的最佳方式。例程:与严格的规则不同,例程以一种价值中立的方式明确预期。而不是创建一个“永不脱节”的规则,创建一个例行程序,让学生习惯排队,走路而不会触碰或打扰他们的邻居,并快速安静地到达他们在学校的目的地。建立例程意味着积极主动,并彻底规划您的课堂期望。学生在哪里放置背包?他们能在白天访问吗?只在午餐前?如何引起老师的注意?你举手,在桌子上放一个红色的杯子,或者从桌子上挂一个红旗?这些选项中的任何一个都可以帮助创建一个在结构化类中运行良好的例程。富强化环境:注意学生喜欢或认为重要的事情。大多数男孩(大多数患有ODD的孩子)喜欢在电脑上闲暇时间,大多数学校都禁止访问令人反感的网站。让学生通过完成学业任务,获得适当行为的积分,或达到行为或学术目标,在计算机上赚取时间。冷静和收集的教师:与对立违抗性障碍相关的行为的功能通常是让人们参与拔河或权力游戏。作为一名教师,最重要的是不要参与一场没有人会赢的战斗。

澳大利亚纽卡斯尔大学教育学Assignment代写:对立违抗性障碍

All students benefit from classroom settings with structure and clear expectations. It is critical in both general education settings where students with ODD are included, and in self-contained settings, that the expectations are clear, explicit, and above all consistent. The most important elements of a successful classroom are: A Structured Environment: Some assumptions about how a classroom should be organized may be inappropriate for students with ODD. Seating arrangements that put children into clusters of four may be fine in settings where children are raised with high expectations but may create too many opportunities for disruptive behavior among children with ODD. Students with ODD often use seating arrangements as occasions for high drama that are much more about work avoidance than interpersonal dynamics. Remember, your role is to be a teacher, not a therapist. Seating students in rows or pairs is often the best way to start the school year. Routines: Unlike strict rules, routines make expectations clear in a way that is value-neutral. Instead of creating a rule that says “Never get out of line,” create a routine where students get used to standing in line, walking without touching or bothering their neighbors, and getting quickly and quietly to their destination at school. Establishing routines means being pro-active, and planning thoroughly what your classroom expectations will be. Where will students place their backpacks? Will they be able to access them during the day? Only before lunch? How does one get the teacher’s attention? Do you raise your hand, place a red cup on top of your desk, or hang a red flag from your desk? Any one of these options could help create a routine that works well in a structured class. A Reinforcement-Rich Environment: Pay attention to the things your students like or think are important. Most boys (the majority of children with ODD) love free time on the computer, and most schools block access to objectionable sites. Let students earn their time on the computer by completing academic tasks, by earning points for appropriate behavior, or by reaching behavioral or academic goals. A Calm and Collected Teacher: The function of the behavior associated with Oppositional Defiant Disorder is often to engage people in authority in a tug of war or power play. As a teacher, the most important thing is not to engage in a battle that no one will win.

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