In 1919, early fear of communism led to Palmer’s attack, which led to arrest and immediate deportation, without trials by more than 10,000 German and Russian-American immigrants. After the Japanese air strike on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the Franklin Roosevelt government ordered about 127,000 American citizens of Japanese descent to be held in detention camps during the Second World War. During the red panic of the early 1950s, the McCarthy era saw thousands of Americans accused of being communists or communist sympathizers without government evidence. After a series of so-called “investigations” by Senator Joseph McCarthy, hundreds of defendants were excluded and prosecuted for their political beliefs. A grocery store in Oakland, Calif., has a sold sign and a patriotic loyalty claiming its owner. The Japanese-American boss who graduated from the University of California presented the “I am an American” sign the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Soon after, the government closed the store and moved its owner to a detention camp.