英国约克郡论文代写:五角大楼论文

关于埃尔斯贝格在将五角大楼文件泄露给新闻界以及对其出版物进行法律纠纷方面的作用,已经编写和制作了大量书籍和电影。 Ellsberg是由Matthew Rhys在2017年的电影“The Post”中饰演的。影片中还有Meryl Streep饰演华盛顿邮报的出版人Katherine Graham和报纸编辑Ben Bradlee的Tom Hanks。埃尔斯伯格是詹姆斯·斯派德在2003年的电影“五角大楼论文”中饰演的。他还出现在2009年的一部纪录片“美国最危险人物:丹尼尔埃尔斯伯格和五角大楼论文”中。五角大楼论文也成为众多书籍的主题,包括“纽约时报”记者尼尔希恩在2017年出版的“五角大楼文件:越南战争的秘密历史”;和格雷厄姆的“五角大楼文件:在华盛顿邮报上创造历史”。 Ellsberg于1952年获得哈佛大学经济学学士学位,并获得博士学位。他于1962年在哈佛大学获得经济学学士学位。他还曾在剑桥大学国王学院学习。埃尔斯贝格曾在海军陆战队服役,然后在兰德公司工作,这是一家位于弗吉尼亚州阿灵顿的研究和分析非营利组织,以及美国国防部,在那里他帮助制作了一份关于美国高级官员如何做出决定的报告。该国在1945年至1968年期间参与了越南之路。这份7,000页的报告被称为五角大楼文件,其中包括林登约翰逊总统的政府“系统性地谎报,不仅对公众,而且对国会,关于超越国家利益和意义的主题。“这是埃尔伯格军事和职业生涯的时间表。 英国约克郡论文代写:五角大楼论文 A large number of books and films have been written and produced about Elsberg's role in leaking Pentagon documents to the press and legal disputes over his publications. Ellsberg was played by Matthew Rhys in the 2017 movie "The Post". Also included in the film is Meryl Streep's Washington Post publisher Katherine Graham and newspaper editor Ben Bradlee's Tom Hanks. Elsberg was played by James Spider in the 2003 film Pentagon Paper. He also appeared in a 2009 documentary "The Most Dangerous Person in the United States: Daniel Elsberg and the Pentagon Paper". The Pentagon paper has also become the subject of numerous books, including the "New York Times" journalist Neil Heane published in 2017 "Pentagon Document: The Secret History of the Vietnam War"; and Graham's "Pentagon Document: Created on the Washington Post history". Ellsberg received a bachelor's degree in economics from Harvard University in 1952 and received his Ph.D. He received...
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加拿大女王大学考古学论文代写:准确测量和发布

然而,使用BP的一个主要缺点是,今年当然每12个月就会发生变化。如果这是一个简单的向后计算问题,那么今天在50年内准确测量和发布的500 BP将是550 BP。我们需要一个固定的时间点作为起点,以便所有BP日期无论何时发布都是等效的。由于BP指定最初与放射性碳测年相关,考古学家选择1950年作为“现在”的参考点。选择那个日期是因为放射性碳测年是在20世纪40年代后期发明的。与此同时,大气层核试验在1940年代开始向大气层投入大量碳。 1950年以后的放射性碳日期实际上是无用的,除非我们能够找到一种方法来校准仍然沉积在我们大气中的过量碳。尽管如此,1950年是很久以前的 - 我们应该将起点调整到2000年吗?不,在未来几年内必须再次解决同样的问题。学者们现在通常将原始的,未校准的放射性碳年代称为RCYBP年(1950年之前的放射性碳年),以及那些日期的校准版本,如校准BP,校准AD和校准BC(校准或日历年BP,AD和BC) 。这可能看起来似乎过分,但过去有一个稳定的起点来连接我们的日期总是有用的,尽管我们现代的,多元文化共享的日历已经过时的宗教基础。所以,当你看到2000 cal BP时,想想“1950年以前的2000年”或者计算到公元前50年的年份。无论何时发布,它总是意味着。 加拿大女王大学考古学论文代写:准确测量和发布 However, one of the main drawbacks of using BP is that this year, of course, changes every 12 months. If this is a simple backwards calculation problem, the 500 BP that is accurately measured and released today in 50 years will be 550 BP. We need a fixed point in time as a starting point so that all BP dates are equivalent whenever they are published. Since the BP designation was originally associated with radiocarbon dating, archaeologists chose 1950 as the “now” reference point. The date was chosen because the radiocarbon dating was invented in the late 1940s. At the same time, the atmospheric nuclear test began to invest large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere in the 1940s. The radiocarbon date after 1950 is virtually useless unless we can find a way to calibrate excess carbon still deposited in our atmosphere. Still, 1950 was a long time ago - should we...
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英国贝尔法斯特女王大学Essay代写:CHRONO气候

从20世纪90年代开始,由贝尔法斯特女王大学CHRONO气候,环境和年表中心的Paula J. Reimer领导的研究人员联盟开始构建一个广泛的数据集和校准工具,他们首先称之为CALIB。从那时起,CALIB(现已更名为IntCal)已经多次改进 - 截至本文撰写时(2017年1月),该程序现在称为IntCal13。 IntCal结合并加强了来自树木年轮,冰芯,火山灰,珊瑚和洞穴的数据,为12,000到5万年前的c14日期提供了显着改进的校准集。最新的曲线于2012年7月在第21届国际放射性碳排放大会上获得批准。在过去几年中,进一步提炼放射性碳曲线的新潜在来源是日本的水月湖。 Suigetsu湖每年形成的沉积物保存着过去5万年来环境变化的详细信息,放射性碳专家PJ Reimer认为这些信息与格陵兰冰盖的样品核心一样好,也许更好。研究人员Bronk-Ramsay等。报告808 AMS日期基于三个不同放射性碳实验室测量的沉积物变化。日期和相应的环境变化有望在其他关键气候记录之间建立直接关联,使得Reimer等研究人员能够将放射性碳日期精确地校准到12,500到实际限制的c14约会52,800之间。 Reimer及其同事指出,IntCal13只是最新的校准装置,预计会有进一步的改进。例如,在IntCal09的校准中,他们发现了在新仙女木(12,550-12,900 cal BP)期间,北大西洋深水形成的关闭或至少急剧减少的证据,这肯定是气候变化的反映;他们不得不从北大西洋扔出那段时间的数据并使用不同的数据集。我们应该在不久的将来看到一些有趣的结果。 英国贝尔法斯特女王大学Essay代写:CHRONO气候 Beginning in the 1990s, a consortium of researchers led by Paula J. Reimer of the CHRONO Center for Climate, Environment and Watchmaking at Queen's University in Belfast began to build an extensive data set and calibration tool, first called CALIB. Since then, CALIB (now renamed IntCal) has been improved several times - as of this writing (January 2017), the program is now called IntCal13. IntCal combines and enhances data from tree rings, ice cores, volcanic ash, corals and caves, providing a significantly improved calibration set for the c14 date from 12,000 to 50,000 years ago. The latest curve was approved at the 21st International Radiocarbon Emission Conference in July 2012. In the past few years, a new potential source for further refining the radiocarbon curve is Japan's Shuiyue Lake. Seigetsu Lake's annual sediments preserve detailed information on environmental changes over the past 50,000 years, and radiocarbon expert PJ Reimer...
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新加坡南洋理工论文代写:铁冶炼的发明

首字母BP(或bp和很少B.P.),当放在一个数字后(如2500 BP),意味着“现在之前的年份”。考古学家和地质学家通常使用这个缩写来指代通过放射性碳测年技术获得的日期。虽然BP通常也被用作对象或事件年龄的不精确估计,但是放射性碳方法的怪癖使得在科学中使用它是必要的。放射性碳测年是在20世纪40年代后期发明的,并且在几十年内,人们发现虽然从该方法中检索到的日期具有良好的,可重复的进展,但它们与日历年不是一对一的匹配。最重要的是,研究人员发现放射性碳日期受到大气中碳含量的影响,过去由于自然和人为原因(例如铁冶炼的发明,工业革命和发明),大气中的碳大量波动。内燃机)。树木年轮在创建时记录大气中的碳含量,用于校准或微调放射性碳日期到其日历日期。学者们使用树木年代学,将那些环形环与已知的碳波动相匹配。在过去的几年里,这种方法已经多次改进和改进。首先建立BP是为了澄清日历年与放射性碳年代之间的关系。使用英国石油公司的一个优点是它避免了偶尔激怒的哲学辩论,即在我们这个多元文化的世界中,使用AD和BC,更明确地引用基督教,或者使用相同的日历但是没有明确的参考文献:CE(共同时代)和BCE(在共同时代之前)。当然,问题是CE和BCE仍然使用基督诞生的估计日期作为其编号系统的参考点:公元前1年和公元前1年在数字上等同于公元前1和公元1年。 新加坡南洋理工论文代写:铁冶炼的发明 The initials BP (or bp and rarely B.P.), when placed after a number (such as 2500 BP), means "the year before the current". Archaeologists and geologists often use this abbreviation to refer to dates obtained through radiocarbon dating techniques. Although BP is often used as an inaccurate estimate of the age of an object or event, the quirks of the radiocarbon approach make it necessary to use it in science. Radiocarbon dating was invented in the late 1940s, and within a few decades it was discovered that although the dates retrieved from the method have good, repeatable progress, they are not one-on-one with the calendar year. match. Most importantly, the researchers found that the radiocarbon date was affected by the carbon content of the atmosphere, which in the past was largely fluctuated by natural and human factors (such as the invention of iron smelting, industrial revolution and invention). internal combustion engine). The tree rings record the carbon content of...
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英国爱丁堡大学论文代写:有机物体集

但是,有一个问题。大气中的碳随着地球磁场强度和太阳活动而波动。你必须知道在有机体死亡时大气中的碳含量(放射性碳“储层”)是什么样的,以便能够计算自有机体死亡以来已经过了多少时间。你需要的是一个标尺,一个可靠的水库地图:换句话说,你可以安全地确定日期的有机物体集,测量其C14含量,从而建立给定年份的基线水库。幸运的是,我们确实有一个有机物体,每年跟踪大气中的碳:树木年轮。树木在它们的生长环中保持碳14平衡 - 树木每年都会生存一个环。虽然我们没有任何有5万年历史的树木,但我们确实有重叠的树木戒指,可以追溯到12,594年。换句话说,我们有一个非常可靠的方法来校准我们这个星球过去最近12,594年的原始放射性碳日期。但在此之前,只有零碎的数据可供使用,因此很难明确确定13,000年以前的任何数据。可靠的估计是可能的,但具有大的+/-因子。正如你可能想象的那样,科学家们一直试图发现其他有机物,这些有机物可以在利比发现之后稳定地安排。其他检查的有机数据集包括varves(沉积岩中的层,每年铺设,包含有机物质,深海珊瑚,洞穴(洞穴沉积物)和火山喷发岩;但这些方法都存在问题。 varves有可能包括旧的土壤碳,并且海洋珊瑚中C14的波动量仍有尚未解决的问题。 英国爱丁堡大学论文代写:有机物体集 However, there is a problem. The carbon in the atmosphere fluctuates with the strength of the Earth's magnetic field and solar activity. You must know what the carbon content of the atmosphere (radiocarbon “reservoir”) is when the organism dies, so that you can calculate how much time has passed since the death of the organism. What you need is a ruler, a reliable reservoir map: in other words, you can safely determine the date set of organic objects and measure their C14 content to establish a baseline reservoir for a given year. Fortunately, we do have an organic object that tracks the carbon in the atmosphere every year: the tree rings. Trees maintain a balance of carbon 14 in their growth rings - trees live a ring every year. Although we don't have any trees with 50,000 years of history, we do have overlapping tree rings that date back to 12,594. In other words, we have a...
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美国德克萨斯州论文代写:生命周期

放射性碳年代测定是科学家们可以使用的最着名的考古测年技术之一,并且普通公众中的许多人至少听说过它。但是关于放射性碳如何工作以及它是多么可靠的技术存在许多误解。放射性碳测年是由美国化学家Willard F. Libby和他在芝加哥大学的一些学生于20世纪50年代发明的:1960年,他因发明而获得诺贝尔化学奖。这是有史以来第一个发明的绝对科学方法:也就是说,该技术是第一个允许研究人员确定有机物体在多长时间内死亡的技术,无论它是否在上下文中。害羞的对象上的日期戳,它仍然是最好和最准确的约会技术设计。所有生物都将气体碳14(C14)与它们周围的大气交换 - 动物和植物将碳14与大气交换,鱼和珊瑚在水中与溶解的C14交换碳。在动物或植物的整个生命周期中,C14的量与其周围环境完全平衡。当有机体死亡时,这种平衡就会被打破。死亡生物体中的C14以已知的速度缓慢衰减:其“半衰期”。像C14这样的同位素的半衰期是其中一半衰变所需的时间:在C14中,每5,373年,其中一半消失了。因此,如果你测量死亡生物体中的C14含量,你可以计算出它停止与大气交换碳的时间。鉴于相对原始的情况,放射性碳实验室可以长达5万年前在死亡生物体中准确测量放射性碳的数量;在此之后,还没有足够的C14来衡量。 美国德克萨斯州论文代写:生命周期 Radiocarbon dating is one of the most famous archaeological dating techniques scientists can use, and many people in the general public have heard of it at least. But there are many misconceptions about how radiocarbon works and how reliable it is. The radiocarbon dating was invented by American chemist Willard F. Libby and some of his students at the University of Chicago in the 1950s: In 1960, he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his invention. This is the first ever absolute scientific method of invention: that is, the technology is the first technology that allows researchers to determine how long an organic object will die, whether or not it is in context. The date stamp on the shy object, it is still the best and most accurate dating technology design. All organisms exchange gaseous carbon 14 (C14) with the atmosphere around them - animals and plants exchange carbon 14 with the atmosphere, and fish...
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英国曼彻斯特考古学论文代写:放射性碳

正如您可能想象的那样,科学家们一直试图在过去的五十年中发现可以安全稳定地过时的有机物。其他有机数据集包括varves,它是每年铺设的沉积岩层,含有有机物质;深海珊瑚,洞穴(洞穴沉积物)和火山喷发岩;但是每种方法都存在问题。洞穴沉积和变化有可能包括旧的土壤碳,并且尚未解决的问题是洋流中14C的波动量。由贝尔法斯特女王大学地理,考古学和古生态学学院气候,环境与年表CHRONO中心的Paula J. Reimer领导的研究联盟,并在Radiocarbon期刊上发表,一直致力于解决这一问题。几十年来,开发一个软件程序,使用越来越大的数据集来校准日期。最新的是IntCal13,它结合并加强了来自树木年轮,冰芯,火山灰,珊瑚,洞穴的数据,以及最近来自日本Suigetsu湖沉积物的数据,为c14提供了显着改进的校准装置日期在12,000到5万年前。据报道,2012年,日本的一个湖泊有可能进一步微调放射性碳测年。 Suigetsu湖每年形成的沉积物保存着过去5万年来环境变化的详细信息,放射性碳专家PJ Reimer说这些信息与格陵兰冰芯一样好,甚至可能更好。研究人员Bronk-Ramsay等。据报道,808个AMS日期基于三个不同放射性碳实验室测量的沉积物变化。日期和相应的环境变化有望在其他关键气候记录之间建立直接关联,允许Reimer等研究人员将放射性碳日期精确校准在12,500到c14约会52,800的实际极限之间。 英国曼彻斯特考古学论文代写:放射性碳 As you might imagine, scientists have been trying to find organic matter that can be safely and steadily outdated over the past 50 years. Other organic data sets include varves, which are sedimentary rock layers laid each year, containing organic matter; deep-sea corals, caves (cave sediments) and volcanic eruptions; but each method has problems. Cave deposits and changes are likely to include old soil carbon, and the unresolved problem is the amount of 14C fluctuations in ocean currents. A research consortium led by Paula J. Reimer of the CHRONO Center for Climate, Environment and Chronology at the University of Queens, Belfast, and published in the Radiocarbon journal, has been working to solve this problem. For decades, develop a software program that uses an ever-larger data set to calibrate dates. The latest is IntCal13, which combines and enhances data from tree rings, ice cores, volcanic ash, corals, caves, and recent data from sediments in Lake Suigetsu, Japan,...
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美国明德大学艺术论文代写:挣扎的艺术家

奥拉纳是风景画家弗雷德里克·爱德温教堂(1826-1900)的大宅。作为一个年轻人,教会与哈德逊河绘画学院的创始人托马斯科尔一起学习绘画。结婚后,教堂回到了纽约州北部的哈德逊山谷,安顿下来并养育了一个家庭。他们在1861年的第一个家,Cozy Cottage,由建筑师Richard Morris Hunt设计。 1872年,这个家庭搬进了一个更大的住宅,这个住宅是在Calvert Vaux的帮助下设计的,Calvert Vaux是一位在纽约市设计中央公园最着名的建筑师。当他搬回哈德逊山谷时,弗雷德里克教堂超出了我们对“挣扎的艺术家”的形象。他从Cozy Cottage开始做小事,但他在1868年前往中东的地方给人留下了深刻的印象。受佩特拉和波斯装饰的标志性建筑影响,教堂毫无疑问知道正在附近的联合学院建造的诺特纪念馆和塞缪尔克莱门斯在教堂的康涅狄格州建造的房子。这三种结构的风格被描述为哥特式复兴,但中间复活节装饰需要更具体,一种风格如画的哥特式风格。即使是奥拉纳(Olana)这个名字,也可以从古老的奥兰(Olane)城市中汲取灵感,俯瞰阿拉克斯河(Araxes River),奥拉纳(Olana)俯瞰哈德逊河(Hudson River) Olana在充分表达景观艺术家Frederic Church的兴趣的环境中呈现了东西方建筑设计的庄严组合。房主作为房主的表达对我们所有人来说都是一个熟悉的概念。艺术家的家园也不例外。像这个照片集中的大多数艺术家一样,纽约州哈德逊附近的奥拉纳向公众开放。 美国明德大学艺术论文代写:挣扎的艺术家 Olana is the mansion of the landscape painter Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900). As a young man, the church studied painting with Thomas Cole, founder of the Hudson River School of Painting. After the marriage, the church returned to the Hudson Valley in northern New York, settled down and raised a family. Their first home in 1861, Cozy Cottage, was designed by architect Richard Morris Hunt. In 1872, the family moved into a larger home designed with the help of Calvert Vaux, one of the most famous architects in Central Park in New York City. When he moved back to the Hudson Valley, Frederick Church exceeded our image of the “struggling artist”. He started doing small things from Cozy Cottage, but he left a deep impression on the place he traveled to the Middle East in 1868. Influenced by the landmarks decorated by Petra and Persia, the church undoubtedly knows...
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英国亚伯大学建筑论文代写:保护格栅

在卡洛的童年时代,她的家庭住宅被涂成了柔和的色调。当Kahlo和她的丈夫,着名的壁画家Diego Rivera重新改造以适应他们戏剧性的生活方式和色彩缤纷的客人时,令人惊讶的钴蓝色来得更晚了。 1937年,这对夫妇为寻求庇护的俄罗斯革命家莱昂托洛茨基强化了这所房子。保护格栅(漆成绿色)取代了法国的阳台。该物业扩大到包括一个相邻的地段,后来为一个大花园和其他建筑物腾出空间。在他们结婚的大部分时间里,Kahlo和Rivera使用Blue House作为临时休养所,工作区和宾馆而不是永久居住地。弗里达·卡罗(Frida Kahlo)和迭戈·里维拉(Diego Rivera)穿越墨西哥和美国,最终在蓝屋附近安置了一对由建筑师胡安·奥戈曼(Juan O'Gorman)为他们设计的包豪斯风格的房屋工作室。然而,狭窄的楼梯对于遭受多种身体疾病的Kahlo来说并不实用。此外,她发现现代主义建筑的工厂式钢管不受欢迎。她更喜欢她童年时期家中的大厨房和热情好客的庭院。 Frida Kahlo和Diego Rivera  - 离婚和再婚 - 在20世纪40年代早期搬进了Blue House。在与建筑师Juan O'Gorman的协商下,Rivera建造了一个新翼,面向Londres街并封闭了庭院。火山岩壁上的壁龛显示陶瓷花瓶。 Kahlo的工作室搬迁到新翼楼的二楼房间。蓝屋成为一个充满活力的空间,充满了民间艺术的能量,大型犹大人物,玩具收藏品,刺绣靠垫,装饰漆器,花卉展示和色彩鲜艳的家具。 “我从来没有进过这么漂亮的房子,”卡洛的一位学生写道。 “...花盆,庭院周围的走廊,MardonioMagaña的雕塑,花园里的金字塔,异国植物,仙人掌,悬挂在树上的兰花,里面装着鱼的小喷泉。随着Kahlo健康状况的恶化,她把大部分时间都花在一间医院房间,装饰着模仿蓝屋的气氛。1954年,在与迭戈里维拉和客人们举行生动的生日派对后,她在家中去世。四年后,蓝屋开业为弗里达Kahlo博物馆。该房屋致力于Kahlo的生活和工作,已成为墨西哥城访问量最大的博物馆之一。 英国亚伯大学建筑论文代写:保护格栅 In Carlo's childhood, her family home was painted in soft tones. When Kahlo and her husband, the famous muralist Diego Rivera, remodeled to accommodate their dramatic lifestyle and colourful guests, the surprising cobalt blue came later. In 1937, the couple strengthened the house for the asylum-seeker Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky. The protective grille (painted green) replaced the French balcony. The property was expanded to include an adjacent lot and later made room for a large garden and other buildings. Most of the time they got married, Kahlo and Rivera used Blue House as a temporary retreat, work area and hotel rather than permanent residence. Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera traveled through Mexico and the United States, eventually placing a pair of architects, Juan O'Gorman, near the Blue House. Bauhaus-style housing studio designed for them. However, the narrow staircase is not practical for...
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新西兰奥克兰大学论文代写:法式装饰和家具

在墨西哥城Coyoacán村广场附近的Allende和Londres街道拐角处的钴蓝屋停留时间。游览这些房间,你会看到艺术家Freda Kahlo的超现实主义画作,以及她的油漆和画笔的整洁安排。然而,在卡洛的喧嚣生活中,这座房子是一个充满活力,不断变化的空间,表达了艺术家与世界的复杂互动。 “Frida让Blue House成为她的避难所,将她童年的家园变成了一件艺术品,”Suzanne Barbezat在家里的Frida Kahlo写道。这本书充满了历史照片和她作品的图像,描述了Kahlo画作的灵感,这些画作引用了墨西哥文化及其居住的地方。 Blue House,也被称为La Casa Azul,由Kahlo的父亲于1904年建造,他是一位对建筑充满热情的摄影师。深蹲,单层建筑结合了传统的墨西哥风格,法式装饰和家具。 Barbezat的书中显示的原始平面图显示了通向庭院的连通房。沿着外部,铸铁阳台(假阳台)装饰高大的法式门。石膏工程沿屋檐形成装饰带和褶皱图案。 Frida Kahlo于1907年出生在一个小角落的房间里,根据她的一幅草图,后来成为了一个工作室。她1936年的画作“我的祖父母,我的父母”和“我的家谱”将Kahlo描绘成一个胎儿,同时也是一个从蓝屋院子里耸立的孩子。 新西兰奥克兰大学论文代写:法式装饰和家具 The residence time of the Cobalt Blue House at the corner of the Allende and Londres streets near the village square of Coyoacán in Mexico City. Visit these rooms and you will see the surrealist paintings of artist Freda Kahlo and the neat arrangement of her paints and brushes. However, in Carlo's embarrassing life, the house is a vibrant, ever-changing space that expresses the artist's complex interaction with the world. “Frida made Blue House her refuge, turning her childhood home into a work of art,” wrote Suzanne Barbezat at home at Frida Kahlo. The book is full of historical photographs and images of her work, depicting the inspiration of Kahlo's paintings, which cite Mexican culture and where it lives. Blue House, also known as La Casa Azul, was built in 1904 by Kahlo's father, a photographer who is passionate about architecture. Squat, single-storey building combines traditional Mexican style...
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