格尔达勒纳1986年的历史经典着作“父权制的创造”追溯了父权制在第二个千禧年的发展。在中东,将性别关系置于文明历史故事的中心。她认为,在这种发展之前,男性主导地位一般不是人类社会的特征。她的理论的一部分贯穿于另一卷“女权主义意识的创造”中,女性并没有意识到他们是从属的(并且可能是其他的),直到这种意识开始慢慢地出现,从中世纪的欧洲开始。妇女是维护人类社会和社区的关键,但除少数例外情况外,男性掌握着社会和法律权力。妇女可以通过将她的生育能力限制在一个男人身上来获得父权制的一些地位和特权,这样他就可以依靠她的孩子成为他的孩子。通过支持父权制 – 一个男人统治女人的社会组织 – 在历史发展中,而不是在自然界,人性或生物学中,她也为改变打开了大门。如果父权制是由文化创造的,它可以被新文化所颠覆。从钟声钩子:“有远见的女权主义是一种明智而充满爱的政治。它植根于男性和女性的爱,拒绝一个人优先于另一个。女权主义政治的灵魂是承诺结束男女主义的男女统治。爱情不可能存在于任何基于统治和强制的关系中。如果男性的自我定义依赖于服从于父权制的规则,那么男性就不能在父权文化中爱自己。当男性接受女权主义思想和实践时,强调在所有关系中共同成长和自我实现的价值,他们的情感幸福将得到加强。真正的女权主义政治总是把我们从束缚到自由,从无爱到爱。来自凯特米莱特:“父权制,改革或未经改革,仍然是父权制:它最严重的滥用行为被清除或预示,它实际上可能比以前更加稳定和安全。”来自女性出生的艾德丽安·里奇(Adrienne Rich):“男性对女性身体的控制没有任何革命性的东西。这个女人的身体是建立父权制的地形。“还来自钟钩:”我们必须不断批评帝国主义的白人至上主义的父权制文化,因为它被大众媒体规范化并且没有出现问题。“来自玛丽戴利:“’罪’这个词来源于印欧语词’es-‘,意思是’将来’。当我发现这个词源时,我直觉地理解为一个被困在父权制中的[人],这是整个星球的宗教,“在最充分的意义上”是’犯罪’。“玛利亚密斯是“父权制与世界规模积累”一书的作者,将资本主义制度下的劳动分工与性别分工联系起来:“父权制中的和平就是对妇女的战争”。来自安德里亚·德沃金:“在这个世界上成为女性意味着被爱恨我们的男人剥夺了人类选择的潜力。一个人不会在自由中做出选择。相反,一个人在身体类型,行为和价值方面都符合成为一个男性性欲的对象,需要放弃广泛的选择能力……“来自Ursula Le Guin:”文明人说:我是自我,我是主人,其余的都是其他的 – 外面,下面我自己,我使用,我探索,利用,我控制。我所做的就是重要。我想要的是什么事情。我就是我,其余的是女人和荒野,按照我认为合适的方式使用。“来自Yvonne Aburrow:“父权/ kyriarchal /霸权文化旨在调节和控制身体 – 尤其是女性的身体,尤其是黑人女性的身体 – 因为女性,特别是黑人女性,被构建为对方,对抗kyriarchy的抵抗场所因为我们的存在会引起对他人的恐惧,害怕野性,害怕性欲,害怕放手 – 我们的身体和头发(传统上头发是神奇力量的来源)必须受到控制,修饰,减少,遮盖,压制。 “

加拿大渥太华大学社会关系学Assignment代写:女权主义分析

Gerda Lerner’s 1986 history classic, The Creation of Patriarchy, traces the development of the patriarchy to the second millennium B.C.E. in the middle east, putting gender relations at the center of the story of civilization’s history. She argues that before this development, male dominance was not a feature of human society in general. Part of her theory carried through into another volume, The Creation of Feminist Consciousness, is that women were not conscious that they were subordinate (and it might be otherwise) until this consciousness began slowly to emerge, starting with medieval Europe. Women were key to the maintenance of human society and community, but with a few exceptions, social and legal power was wielded by men. Women could gain some status and privilege in patriarchy by limiting her child-bearing capacity to just one man so that he could depend on her children being his children. By rooting patriarchy — a social organization where men rule over women — in historical developments, rather than in nature, human nature or biology, she also opens the door for change. If patriarchy was created by culture, it can be overturned by a new culture. From bell hooks: “Visionary feminism is a wise and loving politics. It is rooted in the love of male and female being, refusing to privilege one over the other. The soul of feminist politics is the commitment to ending patriarchal domination of women and men, girls and boys. Love cannot exist in any relationship that is based on domination and coercion. Males cannot love themselves in patriarchal culture if their very self-definition relies on submission to patriarchal rules. When men embrace feminist thinking and practice, which emphasizes the value of mutual growth and self-actualization in all relationships, their emotional well-being will be enhanced. A genuine feminist politics always brings us from bondage to freedom, from lovelessness to loving.” From Kate Millett: “Patriarchy, reformed or unreformed, is patriarchy still: its worst abuses purged or foresworn, it might actually be more stable and secure than before.” From Adrienne Rich, Of Woman Born: “There is nothing revolutionary whatsoever about the control of women’s bodies by men. The woman’s body is the terrain on which patriarchy is erected.” Also from bell hooks: “We have to constantly critique imperialist white supremacist patriarchal culture because it is normalized by mass media and rendered unproblematic.” From Mary Daly: “The word ‘sin’ is derived from the Indo-European root ‘es-,’ meaning ‘to be.’ When I discovered this etymology, I intuitively understood that for a [person] trapped in patriarchy, which is the religion of the entire planet, ‘to be’ in the fullest sense is ‘to sin’.” From Maria Mies, author of Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale, linking the division of labor under capitalism to the division of the sexes: “Peace in patriarchy is war against women.” From Andrea Dworkin: “Being female in this world means having been robbed of the potential for human choice by men who love to hate us. One does not make choices in freedom. Instead, one conforms in body type and behavior and values to become an object of male sexual desire, which requires an abandonment of a wide-ranging capacity for choice…” From Ursula Le Guin: “Civilized Man says: I am Self, I am Master, all the rest is other–outside, below, underneath, subservient. I own, I use, I explore, I exploit, I control. What I do is what matters. What I want is what matter is for. I am that I am, and the rest is women & wilderness, to be used as I see fit.” From Yvonne Aburrow: “The patriarchal/kyriarchal/hegemonic culture seeks to regulate and control the body – especially women’s bodies, and especially black women’s bodies – because women, especially black women, are constructed as the Other, the site of resistance to the kyriarchy. Because our existence provokes fear of the Other, fear of wildness, fear of sexuality, fear of letting go – our bodies and our hair (traditionally hair is a source of magical power) must be controlled, groomed, reduced, covered, suppressed.”

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