您可以使用哪些道德体系来指导您的生活选择？道德体系通常可以分为三类：道义论，目的论和道德伦理。前两个被认为是道义或基于行动的道德理论，因为它们完全专注于一个人的行为。当根据其后果判断行为在道德上是正确的时，我们就有目的论或结果主义的道德理论。当行动在道德上根据他们与某些职责的合理程度来判断时，我们就有了道义伦理理论，这对于有神论的宗教来说是很常见的。虽然前两个系统关注的问题是“我该怎么做？”，但第三个问题却提出了一个完全不同的问题：“我应该成为什么样的人？”有了这个，我们就有一个基于道德的道德理论 – 它不会将行为判断为对或错，而是将行为的人的性格判断。反过来，这个人根据哪些行为会使一个人成为一个好人做出道德决定。目的论道德体系的特征主要在于关注任何行动可能产生的后果（因此，它们通常被称为结果主义道德体系，这两个术语都在这里使用）。为了做出正确的道德选择，你必须对你的选择会产生什么结果有所了解。当你做出导致正确后果的选择时，你就会在道德上行事;当你做出导致不正确后果的选择时，那么你就是不道德的行为。当行动产生各种结果时，问题在于确定正确的后果。此外，可能倾向于采取以证明手段为目的的目的。基于道德的道德理论更少强调人们应遵循的规则，而是专注于帮助人们培养良好的品格特质，例如善良和慷慨。反过来，这些性格特征将允许一个人在以后的生活中做出正确的决定。美德理论家也强调人们需要学习如何打破品格的坏习惯，比如贪婪或愤怒。这些被称为恶习，阻碍了成为一个好人。道义系统道德系统的特征主要在于注重遵守独立的道德规则或职责。为了做出正确的道德选择，你只需要了解你的道德义务是什么，以及规范这些义务的正确规则是什么。当你履行职责时，你就是在道德上行事。当你没有履行职责时，你的行为是不道德的。在许多宗教中都可以看到道义上的道德体系，在这些宗教中，你遵循据说由上帝或教会建立的规则和职责。
What systems of ethics can you use to guide your choices in life? Ethical systems can generally be broken down into three categories: deontological, teleological and virtue-based ethics. The first two are considered deontic or action-based theories of morality because they focus entirely on the actions which a person performs. When actions are judged morally right based upon their consequences, we have teleological or consequentialist ethical theory. When actions are judged morally right based upon how well they conform to some set of duties, we have a deontological ethical theory, which is common for theist religions. Whereas these first two systems focus on the question “What should I do?,” the third asks an entirely different question: “What sort of person should I be?” With this, we have a virtue-based ethical theory — it doesn’t judge actions as right or wrong but rather the character of the person doing the actions. The person, in turn, makes moral decisions based upon which actions would make one a good person. Teleological moral systems are characterized primarily by a focus on the consequences which any action might have (for that reason, they are often referred to as consequentialist moral systems, and both terms are used here). In order to make correct moral choices, you have to have some understanding of what will result from your choices. When you make choices which result in the correct consequences, then you are acting morally; when you make choices which result in the incorrect consequences, then you are acting immorally. The problem comes in determining correct consequences when an action can produce a variety of outcomes. Also, there may be a tendency to adopt an attitude of the ends justifying the means. Virtue-based ethical theories place much less emphasis on which rules people should follow and instead focus on helping people develop good character traits, such as kindness and generosity. These character traits will, in turn, allow a person to make the correct decisions later on in life. Virtue theorists also emphasize the need for people to learn how to break bad habits of character, like greed or anger. These are called vices and stand in the way of becoming a good person. Deontological moral systems are characterized primarily by a focus on adherence to independent moral rules or duties. In order to make the correct moral choices, you simply have to understand what your moral duties are and what correct rules exist which regulate those duties. When you follow your duty, you are behaving morally. When you fail to follow your duty, you are behaving immorally. A deontological moral system may be seen in many religions, where you follow the rules and duties that are said to have been established by God or the church.