奇怪的是,在ALA的一个分支机构 – 知识自由办公室(OIF)成立之前,有一些公共图书馆审查了阅读材料。例如,马克吐温的“哈克贝利·费恩历险记”于1885年首次被马萨诸塞州康科德公共图书馆的图书馆员禁止。当时,公共图书馆充当文学的守护者,许多图书馆员认为监护权扩展到保护年轻读者。结果,有一些图书管理员在他们保护年轻读者的说法下行使了他们的执照来审查他们认为具有道德破坏性或冒犯性的文献。吐温的哈克贝利·芬恩是美国最受挑战或禁书的书籍之一。用于证明这些挑战或禁令的主要理由是吐温使用现在被认为是种族辱骂的人,指的是非洲裔美国人,美洲原住民和贫穷的美国白人。虽然这部小说是在实行奴隶制的时期设定的,但现代观众可能会发现这种语言是令人反感的,甚至是纵容或促进种族主义。从历史上看,19世纪对书籍的最严重挑战是由担任美国邮政检查员的政治家安东尼康斯托克提出的。 1873年,康斯托克组织了纽约镇压副主席。该组织的目标是监督公共道德。美国邮局和纽约抑制协会授予的联合权力使康斯托克独家控制了美国人的阅读材料。许多报道证实,他拒绝将他视为猥亵或淫秽的材料的议程最终导致美国邮政局拒绝向医学生发送解剖学教科书。康斯托克还声称他的努力导致了十五吨书籍,数百万张照片和印刷设备的销毁。在他任职期间,他总共负责数千人被捕,他声称“他在为’年轻人’的斗争中驱使十五人自杀”。邮政总局职位的权力在1965年进行了调整,当时联邦法院裁定:“如果其他意愿的收件人不能自由接受和考虑他们,那么思想的传播就无法实现。这将是一个只有卖家的贫瘠思想市场。并没有买家。“拉蒙特诉Postmaster General。 2016年禁书周:庆祝自由阅读,9月25日至10月1日。图书馆的作用已经从书籍审查员或监护人转变为免费和开放获取信息的捍卫者。 1939年6月19日,ALA理事会通过了图书馆权利法案。本权利法案第3条规定:“图书馆应该在履行其提供信息和启发的责任时挑战审查制度。”图书馆可以通过一种方式引起对其馆藏和其他公共机构阅读材料的挑战的关注。 ,是推广禁书周,通常在9月的最后一周庆祝。

加拿大西安大略大学Essay代写:知识自由办公室

Curiously, some public libraries reviewed reading materials before the establishment of the ALA branch, the Office of Freedom of Knowledge (OIF). For example, Mark Twain’s “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” was first banned in 1885 by librarians at the Concord Public Library in Massachusetts. At the time, public libraries served as guardians of literature, and many librarians believed that custody extended to protect young readers. As a result, some librarians have exercised their licenses to review documents that they consider to be morally destructive or offensive in the sense that they protect young readers. Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is one of the most challenged or banned books in the United States. The main reason for proving these challenges or bans is that Tween uses people who are now considered to be racially abusive, referring to African Americans, Native Americans, and poor American whites. Although the novel was set during the period of slavery, modern audiences may find the language to be offensive, even to condone or promote racism. Historically, the most serious challenge to books in the 19th century was made by Anthony Comstock, a politician who served as a US postal inspector. In 1873, Comstock organized the Vice Chairman of the New York suppression. The organization’s goal is to monitor public ethics. The joint powers granted by the US Post Office and the New York Repression Association have allowed Comstock to exclusively control American reading materials. Many reports confirm that his refusal to treat him as a material for obscenity or obscenity ultimately led to the US Postal Service’s refusal to send anatomical textbooks to medical students. Comstock also claims that his efforts led to the destruction of fifteen tons of books, millions of photos and printing equipment. During his tenure, he was responsible for thousands of people arrested. He claimed that “he was driving 15 people to commit suicide in the fight for ‘youth.'” The power of the Post Office position was adjusted in 1965, when the federal court ruled: “If the recipients of other wishes are not free to accept and consider them, then the spread of ideas cannot be achieved. This will be a barren thought market with only sellers. There are no buyers. “Lamont v. Postmaster General. Forbidden Book Week 2016: Celebrate free reading, September 25-October 1. The role of the library has shifted from a book examiner or guardian to a defender of free and open access to information. On June 19, 1939, the ALA Board of Directors passed the Library Rights Act. Article 3 of this Bill of Rights states: “Libraries should challenge the censorship system in fulfilling their responsibility to provide information and inspiration.” Libraries can draw attention to the challenges of reading materials in their collections and other public institutions in a way. It is the promotion of the banned week, usually celebrated in the last week of September.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注