步骤的数量因描述的不同而不同,主要当数据和分析被分离成单独的步骤时,但是这是一个相当标准的六个科学方法步骤的列表,对于任何科学类,您都期望了解这些步骤:ResearchConduct背景研究。写下你的资料,这样你可以引用你的参考资料。在现代,你的许多研究可以在网上进行。滚动到文章底部检查引用。即使您无法访问已发表的文章的全文,您通常也可以查看摘要以查看其他实验的总结。采访专家谈一个话题。你对一个课题了解得越多,就越容易进行调查。提出一个假设。这是对你所期望的一种有教养的猜测。这是一个用来预测实验结果的陈述。通常,假设是根据因果关系来写的。或者,它可以描述两种现象之间的关系。一种假设是零假设或无差异假设。这是一种易于检验的假设,因为它假定改变变量对结果没有影响。在现实中,你可能会期待改变,但是拒绝一个假设可能比接受一个更有用。设计并执行一个实验来检验你的假设。实验具有独立和因变量。你改变或控制自变量,并记录它对因变量的影响。对于一个实验来说,只改变一个变量很重要,而不是试图将变量的效果结合到一个实验中。例如,如果你想测试光照强度和肥料浓度对植物生长速率的影响,你实际上要看两个独立的实验。记录观察和分析数据意味着什么。通常,你会准备数据表或图表。不要抛出你认为不好或不支持预测的数据点。一些最令人难以置信的科学发现是因为数据看起来不对!一旦有了数据,您可能需要执行数学分析来支持或反驳您的假设。总结是否接受或拒绝你的假设。对实验没有正确或错误的结果,所以结果都是好的。注意接受一个假设并不一定意味着它是正确的!有时重复实验可能会得到不同的结果。在其他情况下,假设可以预测结果,但是可能得出错误的结论。沟通你的结果。结果可以编译成实验报告或正式提交为论文。不管你接受还是拒绝这个假设,你都可能学到了一些关于这个主题的知识,并且可能希望修改原来的假设,或者为将来的实验形成一个新的假设。

美国杜克大学论文代写:背景研究

The number of steps varies from description to description, mainly when data and analysis are separated into separate steps, but this is a fairly standard list of six scientific methodological steps that you would expect to understand for any scientific class: the Research Conduct background study. Write down your information so that you can quote your reference material. In modern times, many of your research can be done online. Scroll to the bottom of the article to check for references. Even if you can’t access the full text of a published article, you can usually look at the summary to see the summary of other experiments. Interview experts to talk about a topic. The more you know about a subject, the easier it is to investigate. Put forward a hypothesis. This is an educated guess of what you expect. This is a statement used to predict the experimental results. Usually, assumptions are based on causality. Or it can describe the relationship between the two phenomena. One hypothesis is zero hypothesis or indifference hypothesis. This is an EASY-TO-TEST hypothesis because it assumes that changing variables has no effect on the results. In reality, you may expect change, but rejecting a hypothesis may be more useful than accepting one. Design and execute an experiment to test your hypothesis. The experiment has independent and dependent variables. You change or control variables and record their effects on dependent variables. For an experiment, it is important to change only one variable, rather than trying to combine the effects of variables into one experiment. For example, if you want to test the effects of light intensity and fertilizer concentration on plant growth rates, you actually have to look at two separate experiments. What does it mean to record observations and analyze data? Usually, you prepare tables or charts. Do not throw data points that you think are not good or do not support predictions. Some of the most incredible scientific discoveries are because the data don’t look right! Once you have the data, you may need to perform mathematical analysis to support or refute your assumptions. Summarize whether to accept or reject your assumptions. There are no correct or wrong results in the experiment, so the results are all good. Note that accepting a hypothesis does not necessarily mean that it is correct! Sometimes repeated experiments may lead to different results. In other cases, assumptions can predict results, but may lead to incorrect conclusions. Communicate your results. The results can be compiled into experimental reports or formally submitted as papers. Whether you accept or reject this hypothesis, you may have learned something about the subject, and may wish to modify the original hypothesis or form a new hypothesis for future experiments.

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