The number of steps varies from description to description, mainly when data and analysis are separated into separate steps, but this is a fairly standard list of six scientific methodological steps that you would expect to understand for any scientific class: the Research Conduct background study. Write down your information so that you can quote your reference material. In modern times, many of your research can be done online. Scroll to the bottom of the article to check for references. Even if you can’t access the full text of a published article, you can usually look at the summary to see the summary of other experiments. Interview experts to talk about a topic. The more you know about a subject, the easier it is to investigate. Put forward a hypothesis. This is an educated guess of what you expect. This is a statement used to predict the experimental results. Usually, assumptions are based on causality. Or it can describe the relationship between the two phenomena. One hypothesis is zero hypothesis or indifference hypothesis. This is an EASY-TO-TEST hypothesis because it assumes that changing variables has no effect on the results. In reality, you may expect change, but rejecting a hypothesis may be more useful than accepting one. Design and execute an experiment to test your hypothesis. The experiment has independent and dependent variables. You change or control variables and record their effects on dependent variables. For an experiment, it is important to change only one variable, rather than trying to combine the effects of variables into one experiment. For example, if you want to test the effects of light intensity and fertilizer concentration on plant growth rates, you actually have to look at two separate experiments. What does it mean to record observations and analyze data? Usually, you prepare tables or charts. Do not throw data points that you think are not good or do not support predictions. Some of the most incredible scientific discoveries are because the data don’t look right! Once you have the data, you may need to perform mathematical analysis to support or refute your assumptions. Summarize whether to accept or reject your assumptions. There are no correct or wrong results in the experiment, so the results are all good. Note that accepting a hypothesis does not necessarily mean that it is correct! Sometimes repeated experiments may lead to different results. In other cases, assumptions can predict results, but may lead to incorrect conclusions. Communicate your results. The results can be compiled into experimental reports or formally submitted as papers. Whether you accept or reject this hypothesis, you may have learned something about the subject, and may wish to modify the original hypothesis or form a new hypothesis for future experiments.