光谱学是分析物质与电磁波谱的任何部分之间的相互作用。传统上,光谱学涉及可见光谱,但X射线,γ和UV光谱也是有价值的分析技术。光谱学可能涉及光与物质之间的任何相互作用,包括吸收,发射,散射等。从光谱学获得的数据通常以光谱(复数:光谱)表示,该光谱是作为频率或频率的函数测量的因子的图。波长。发射光谱和吸收光谱是常见的例子。当电磁辐射束穿过样品时,光子与样品相互作用。它们可能被吸收,反射,折射等。吸收的辐射会影响样品中的电子和化学键。在某些情况下,吸收的辐射会导致发射较低能量的光子。光谱学研究入射辐射如何影响样品。发射和吸收的光谱可用于获得有关材料的信息。因为相互作用取决于辐射的波长,所以存在许多不同类型的光谱。在实践中,术语“光谱学”和“光谱学”可互换使用(质谱法除外),但这两个词并不完全相同。光谱学这个词来自拉丁语specere,意思是“看”和希腊词skopia,意思是“看”。光谱测定术的结尾来自希腊语metria,意思是“测量”。光谱学通常以非破坏性方式研究系统产生的电磁辐射或系统与光之间的相互作用。光谱测量是电磁辐射的测量,以获得有关系统的信息。换句话说,光谱测定法可以被认为是研究光谱的方法。光谱测定法的实例包括质谱法,卢瑟福散射光谱法,离子迁移率光谱法和新中子三轴光谱法。光谱测量产生的光谱不一定是强度与频率或波长的关系。例如,质谱光谱绘制强度与粒子质量的关系曲线。另一个常见术语是光谱学,其涉及实验光谱学的方法。光谱学和光谱学都指的是辐射强度与波长或频率的关系。用于进行光谱测量的设备包括光谱仪,分光光度计,光谱分析仪和光谱仪。光谱学可用于鉴定样品中化合物的性质。它用于监控化学过程的进展并评估产品的纯度。它还可以用于测量电磁辐射对样品的影响。在某些情况下,这可用于确定暴露于辐射源的强度或持续时间。有多种方法可以对光谱类型进行分类。可以根据辐射能量的类型(例如,电磁辐射,声压波,诸如电子的粒子),所研究的材料的类型(例如,原子,晶体,分子,原子核),之间的相互作用来对技术进行分组。材料和能量(例如,发射,吸收,弹性散射),或通过特定应用(例如,傅里叶变换光谱,圆二色光谱)。

美国加州理工大学物理学Assignment代写:光谱学的定义和差异

Spectroscopy is the analysis of the interaction between matter and any portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Traditionally, spectroscopy involved the visible spectrum of light, but x-ray, gamma, and UV spectroscopy also are valuable analytical techniques. Spectroscopy may involve any interaction between light and matter, including absorption, emission, scattering, etc. Data obtained from spectroscopy is usually presented as a spectrum (plural: spectra) that is a plot of the factor being measured as a function of either frequency or wavelength. Emission spectra and absorption spectra are common examples. When a beam of electromagnetic radiation passes through a sample, the photons interact with the sample. They may be absorbed, reflected, refracted, etc. Absorbed radiation affects the electrons and chemical bonds in a sample. In some cases, the absorbed radiation leads to the emission of lower energy photons. Spectroscopy looks at how the incident radiation affects the sample. Emitted and absorbed spectra can be used to gain information about the material. Because the interaction depends on the wavelength of radiation, there are many different types of spectroscopy. In practice, the terms “spectroscopy” and “spectrometry” are used interchangeably (except for mass spectrometry), but the two words don’t mean exactly the same thing. The word spectroscopy comes from the Latin word specere, meaning “to look at” and the Greek word skopia, meaning “to see”. The ending of the word spectrometry comes from the Greek word metria, meaning “to measure”. Spectroscopy studies the electromagnetic radiation produced by a system or the interaction between the system and light, usually in a nondestructive manner. Spectrometry is the measurement of electromagnetic radiation in order to obtain information about a system. In other words, spectrometry may be considered a method of studying spectra. Examples of spectrometry include mass spectrometry, Rutherford scattering spectrometry, ion-mobility spectrometry, and neuton triple axis spectrometry. The spectra produced by spectrometry aren’t necessarily intensity versus frequency or wavelength. For example, a mass spectrometry spectrum plots intensity versus particle mass. Another common term is spectrography, which refers to methods of experimental spectroscopy. Both spectroscopy and spectography refer to radiation intensity versus wavelength or frequency. Devices used to take spectral measurements include spectrometer, spectrophotometers, spectral analyzers, and spectrographs. Spectroscopy may be used to identify the nature of compounds in a sample. It is used to monitor the progress of chemical processes and to assess the purity of products. It may also be used to measure the effect of electromagnetic radiation on a sample. In some cases, this can be used to determine the intensity or duration of exposure to the radiation source. There are multiple ways to classify types of spectroscopy. The techniques may be grouped according to the type of radiative energy (e.g., electromagnetic radiation, acoustic pressure waves, particles such as electrons), the type of material being studied (e.g., atoms, crystals, molecules, atomic nuclei), the interaction between the material and the energy (e.g., emission, absorption, elastic scattering), or by specific applications (e.g., Fourier transform spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy).

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