澳门是中国南方的一个港口城市和相关岛屿,位于香港以西,有一种可疑的荣誉,它既是中国领土上的第一个也是最后一个欧洲殖民地。葡萄牙人从1999年到1557年12月20日控制了澳门。葡萄牙小小的,遥远的葡萄牙最终是如何咬住明朝中国,并在整个清朝时期持续到二十一世纪的黎明?然而,这个立足点并不是免费的。葡萄牙每年向北京政府支付500两白银。 (这大约是19公斤,或41.5磅,当前价值约为9,645美元。)有趣的是,葡萄牙人将此视为平等之间的租赁付款协议,但中国政府认为该付款是葡萄牙的致敬。这种对双方关系性质的分歧导致葡萄牙人经常抱怨中国人蔑视他们。葡萄牙是第一个欧洲国家,其水手成功地绕非洲尖端进入印度洋盆地。到1513年,一位名叫豪尔赫·阿尔瓦雷斯的葡萄牙船长已经抵达中国。葡萄牙花了二十多年的时间才获得明朝皇帝的许可,在澳门附近的港口停泊贸易船只;葡萄牙商人和水手每天晚上不得不返回他们的船只,他们无法在中国土地上建造任何建筑物。 1552年,中国授权葡萄牙人在现在名为Nam Van的地区为其贸易商品建造干燥和储存棚。最后,在1557年,葡萄牙获准在澳门建立贸易结算。经过近45年的逐步谈判,葡萄牙人终于在中国南方建立了真正的立足点。明朝在1644年沦陷,清朝满族统治下台,但这一政权更迭对葡萄牙人在澳门定居的影响不大。在接下来的两个世纪里,繁华的港口城市的生活和贸易不间断。然而,英国在鸦片战争(1839-42和1856-60)中取得的胜利表明,清政府在欧洲侵占的压力下正在失去影响力。葡萄牙单方面决定在澳门附近夺取另外两个岛屿:1851年的凼仔和1864年的路环。1622年6月,荷兰人袭击了澳门,希望从葡萄牙人手中捕获它。除了东帝汶外,荷兰人已经从现在的印度尼西亚赶走了葡萄牙。此时,澳门接待了约2000名葡萄牙公民,2万名中国公民和约5,000名非洲奴隶,由葡萄牙人从安哥拉和莫桑比克的殖民地带到澳门。真正打击荷兰人袭击的是非洲人;一名荷兰官员在战斗中报告说“我们的人民看到的葡萄牙人很少”。安哥拉人和莫桑比克人的成功防御使澳门免受其他欧洲大国的进一步攻击。到1887年,英国已经成为一个如此强大的区域性参与者(来自香港附近的基地),它能够基本上决定葡萄牙和清朝之间的协议条款。 1887年12月1日的“中葡友好商业条约”迫使中国赋予葡萄牙“澳门永久占领和政府”的权利,同时也阻止葡萄牙将该地区出售或交易给任何其他外国势力。英国坚持这一规定,因为它的竞争对手法国有兴趣为几内亚和澳门的葡萄牙殖民地交易布拉柴维尔刚果。葡萄牙不再需要为澳门支付租金/贡品。清朝最终在1911年至12年间沦陷,但北京的变化再次在澳门南部影响不大。在第二次世界大战期间,日本占领了香港,上海和中国沿海其他地区的盟军领土,但它让中立的葡萄牙负责澳门。当毛泽东和共产党人在1949年赢得中国内战时,他们谴责与葡萄牙签订的“友好和商业条约”是一项不平等的条约,但却没有做任何其他事情。然而,到了1966年,澳门的中国人民厌倦了葡萄牙统治。受到文化大革命的启发,他们开始了一系列抗议活动,很快就发展成骚乱。 12月3日发生骚乱,造成6人死亡,200多人受伤;下个月,葡萄牙独裁政权发表正式道歉。有了这个,澳门问题又被搁置了。中国之前的三次政权更迭对澳门的影响不大,但当葡萄牙的独裁者于1974年倒台时,里斯本的新政府决定摆脱其殖民帝国。到1976年,里斯本放弃了对主权的主张;澳门现在是“葡萄牙政府下的中国领土”。 1979年,该语言被修改为“葡萄牙临时管理下的中国领土”。最后,1987年,里斯本和北京的政府同意澳门将成为中国的特别行政单位。

新加坡国立大学历史学Assignment代写:葡萄牙如何侵占澳门

Macau, a port city and associated islands in southern China, just west of Hong Kong, has the somewhat dubious honor of being both the first and the last European colony on Chinese territory. The Portuguese controlled Macau from 1557 to December 20, 1999. How did tiny, far-off Portugal end up taking a bite of Ming China, and holding on through the entire Qing Era and up to the dawn of the twenty-first century? This foothold was not free, however. Portugal paid an annual sum of 500 taels of silver to the government in Beijing. (That is about 19 kilograms, or 41.5 pounds, with a current-day value of roughly $9,645 US.) Interestingly, the Portuguese viewed this as a rental payment agreement between equals, but the Chinese government thought of the payment as tribute from Portugal. This disagreement over the nature of the relationship between the parties led to frequent Portuguese complaints that the Chinese treated them with contempt. Portugal was the first European country whose sailors successfully traveled around the tip of Africa and into the Indian Ocean basin. By 1513, a Portuguese captain called Jorge Alvares had reached China. It took Portugal two decades more to receive permission from the Ming emperor to anchor trading ships in the harbors around Macau; Portuguese traders and sailors had to return to their ships each night, and they could not build any structures on Chinese soil. In 1552, China granted the Portuguese permission to build drying and storage sheds for their trade goods in the area now named Nam Van. Finally, in 1557, Portugal got permission to establish a trading settlement in Macau. It took almost 45 years of inch-by-inch negotiation, but the Portuguese finally had a real foothold in southern China. The Ming Dynasty fell in 1644, and the ethnic-Manchu Qing Dynasty took power, but this regime change had little impact on the Portuguese settlement in Macau. For the next two centuries, life and trade continued uninterrupted in the bustling port city. Britain’s victories in the Opium Wars (1839-42 and 1856-60), however, demonstrated that the Qing government was losing clout under the pressure of European encroachment. Portugal unilaterally decided to seize two additional islands near Macau: Taipa in 1851 and Coloane in 1864. In June of 1622, the Dutch attacked Macau, hoping to capture it from the Portuguese. The Dutch had already ousted Portugal from all of what is now Indonesia except East Timor. By this time, Macau hosted about 2,000 Portuguese citizens, 20,000 Chinese citizens, and around 5,000 African slaves, brought to Macau by the Portuguese from their colonies in Angola and Mozambique. It was the Africans who actually fought off the Dutch assault; a Dutch officer reported that “Our people saw very few Portuguese” during the battle. This successful defense by the Angolans and Mozambicans kept Macau safe from further attack by other European powers. By 1887, Britain had become such a powerful regional player (from its base in nearby Hong Kong) that it was able to essentially dictate the terms of an agreement between Portugal and the Qing. The December 1, 1887 “Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Amity and Commerce” forced China to give Portugal a right to “perpetual occupation and government” of Macau, while also preventing Portugal from selling or trading the area to any other foreign power. Britain insisted on this provision, because its rival France was interested in trading Brazzaville Congo for the Portuguese colonies of Guinea and Macau. Portugal no longer had to pay rent / tribute for Macau. The Qing Dynasty finally fell in 1911-12, but again the change in Beijing had little impact down south in Macau. During World War II, Japan seized Allied territories in Hong Kong, Shanghai, and elsewhere in coastal China, but it left neutral Portugal in charge of Macau. When Mao Zedong and the communists won the Chinese Civil War in 1949, they denounced the Treaty of Amity and Commerce with Portugal as an unequal treaty, but did nothing else about it. By 1966, however, the Chinese people of Macau were fed up with Portuguese rule. Inspired in part by the Cultural Revolution, they began a series of protests that soon developed into riots. A riot on December 3 resulted in six deaths and over 200 injuries; the next month, Portugal’s dictatorship issued a formal apology. With that, the Macau question was shelved once more. Three previous regime changes in China had had little impact on Macau, but when Portugal’s dictator fell in 1974, the new government in Lisbon decided to get rid of its colonial empire. By 1976, Lisbon had relinquished claims of sovereignty; Macau was now a “Chinese territory under Portuguese administration.” In 1979, the language was amended to a “Chinese territory under temporary Portuguese administration.” Finally, in 1987, the governments in Lisbon and Beijing agreed that Macau would become a special administrative unit within China.

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