在某种程度上，你可能听说过有人对一个他们几乎一无所知的话题充满信心。心理学家已经研究过这个主题，他们提出了一个有点令人惊讶的解释，称为Dunning-Kruger效应：当人们对某个主题不太了解时，他们通常实际上并不知道他们的知识极限，并且认为他们比实际知道的更多。下面，我们将回顾Dunning-Kruger效应是什么，讨论它如何影响人们的行为，并探索人们可以变得更有知识并克服Dunning-Kruger效应的方法。 Dunning-Kruger效应是指在特定主体中相对不熟练或不可知的人有时倾向于高估他们的知识和能力。在一组测试这种效应的研究中，研究人员Justin Kruger和David Dunning要求参与者完成他们在特定领域（如幽默或逻辑推理）技能的测试。然后，参与者被要求猜测他们在测试中的表现如何。他们发现参与者倾向于高估他们的能力，而这种影响在测试中得分最低的参与者中最为明显。例如，在一项研究中，参与者被给予一组练习LSAT问题来完成。实际得分低于25％的参赛者猜测他们的得分将他们排在参赛者的第62个百分点。
In a way, you may have heard people have confidence in a topic they know almost nothing about. Psychologists have studied this topic, and they have come up with a somewhat surprising explanation called the Dunning-Kruger effect: when people don’t know a topic well, they usually don’t actually know their knowledge limits. And think that they know more than they actually know. Below, we will review what the Dunning-Kruger effect is, discuss how it affects people’s behavior, and explore ways people can become more knowledgeable and overcome the Dunning-Kruger effect. The Dunning-Kruger effect is that people who are relatively unskilled or unknowable in a particular subject sometimes tend to overestimate their knowledge and abilities. In a group of studies that tested this effect, researchers Justin Kruger and David Dunning asked participants to complete their tests in specific areas (such as humor or logical reasoning). Participants were then asked to guess how they performed in the test. They found that participants tended to overestimate their abilities, which were most pronounced among the participants with the lowest scores in the test. For example, in one study, participants were given a set of practice LSAT questions to complete. Participants who actually scored less than 25% guessed that their score would rank them 62% of the contestants.