美国在第一次世界大战中宣布对德国发动战争两个月后,国会通过了1917年的“间谍法”,将任何人在战争期间干涉或企图破坏美国武装部队或在以任何方式协助国家的敌人的战争努力。根据该法案于1917年6月15日由伍德罗威尔逊总统签署成为法律,被判犯有此类行为的人可能会被处以10,000美元和20年监禁的罚款。根据该法案的一项仍然适用的规定,任何在战争期间被判有罪向敌人提供信息的人都可能被判处死刑。该法律还授权从美国邮件中删除被认为是“叛国或煽动”的材料。虽然该法案的目的是在战争期间界定和惩罚从事间谍行为的行为,但它必然会对美国人的第一修正案权利设置新的限制。根据该法案的措辞,任何公开抗议战争或军事草案的人都可以接受调查和起诉。该法案的非特定语言使政府几乎可以针对任何反对战争的人,包括和平主义者,中立主义者,共产主义者,无政府主义者和社会主义者。法律在法庭上很快受到质疑。然而,最高法院在1919年的申克诉美国案一致决定中认为,当美国面临“明显而现实的危险”时,国会有权制定法律,在和平时期可能在宪法上不可接受。 。在其通过一年后,1917年的“间谍法”延长了1918年的“煽动法”,这使得任何人使用“不忠,亵渎,侮辱或辱骂语言”关于美国政府,宪法的联邦罪行,武装部队,或美国国旗。虽然“煽动法”于1920年12月被废除,但许多人在战后对共产主义的担忧日益加剧时面临煽动叛乱的指控。尽管完全废除了“煽动叛乱法”,但1917年“间谍法”的若干条款仍然有效。

英国布里斯托大学法律论文代写:煽动法

Two months after the United States declared war against Germany in the First World War, Congress passed the “Spy Act” of 1917, which would interfere with or attempt to destroy the US armed forces during the war or assist the country in any way. The enemy’s war effort. According to the Act, which was signed by President Woodrow Wilson on June 15, 1917, the person convicted of such an act may be fined $10,000 and 20 years in prison. According to a still applicable provision of the Act, anyone who is convicted of providing information to the enemy during the war may be sentenced to death. The law also authorizes the removal of materials deemed to be “treason or incitement” from US mail. Although the purpose of the bill is to define and punish espionage during the war, it will inevitably impose new restrictions on Americans’ First Amendment rights. According to the wording of the bill, anyone who publicly protests against a war or military draft can be investigated and prosecuted. The non-specific language of the bill allows the government to target almost anyone who opposes war, including pacifists, neutralists, communists, anarchists, and socialists. The law was quickly questioned in court. However, in the unanimous decision of the Smyck v. United States in 1919, the Supreme Court held that when the United States faced “obvious and real danger”, Congress had the power to enact laws that might be constitutionally unacceptable in times of peace. . After a year of passage, the “spy law” of 1917 extended the “incitement law” of 1918, which allowed anyone to use “unfaithful, awkward, insulting or abusive language” about the US government, the federal crime of the Constitution, armed Troop, or the American flag. Although the “Incitement Act” was abolished in December 1920, many people were accused of sedition and rebellion when fears of communism increased after the war. Although the “incitement to insurrection law” was completely abolished, several provisions of the “spy law” in 1917 were still valid.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注