Two months after the United States declared war against Germany in the First World War, Congress passed the “Spy Act” of 1917, which would interfere with or attempt to destroy the US armed forces during the war or assist the country in any way. The enemy’s war effort. According to the Act, which was signed by President Woodrow Wilson on June 15, 1917, the person convicted of such an act may be fined $10,000 and 20 years in prison. According to a still applicable provision of the Act, anyone who is convicted of providing information to the enemy during the war may be sentenced to death. The law also authorizes the removal of materials deemed to be “treason or incitement” from US mail. Although the purpose of the bill is to define and punish espionage during the war, it will inevitably impose new restrictions on Americans’ First Amendment rights. According to the wording of the bill, anyone who publicly protests against a war or military draft can be investigated and prosecuted. The non-specific language of the bill allows the government to target almost anyone who opposes war, including pacifists, neutralists, communists, anarchists, and socialists. The law was quickly questioned in court. However, in the unanimous decision of the Smyck v. United States in 1919, the Supreme Court held that when the United States faced “obvious and real danger”, Congress had the power to enact laws that might be constitutionally unacceptable in times of peace. . After a year of passage, the “spy law” of 1917 extended the “incitement law” of 1918, which allowed anyone to use “unfaithful, awkward, insulting or abusive language” about the US government, the federal crime of the Constitution, armed Troop, or the American flag. Although the “Incitement Act” was abolished in December 1920, many people were accused of sedition and rebellion when fears of communism increased after the war. Although the “incitement to insurrection law” was completely abolished, several provisions of the “spy law” in 1917 were still valid.