在十八世纪之前,英国 – 以及欧洲其他国家 – 生产煤炭,但数量有限。煤坑很小,一半是露天矿(表面只有大洞)。他们的市场只是当地的,他们的业务是本地化的,通常只是一个较大的房地产的副业。溺水和窒息也是非常现实的问题(了解煤炭工人的更多信息)。在工业革命期间,由于铁和蒸汽对煤炭的需求猛增,随着煤炭生产技术的提高和运输能力的提高,煤炭经历了大规模的升级。从1700年到1750年,产量增加了50%,到1800年又增加了100%。在第一次革命的后期,由于蒸汽动力确实占据了一席之地,这一增长率在1850年飙升至500%。煤炭来自许多方面。随着人口的增加,国内市场也在增加,城里的人们需要煤炭,因为他们不靠近森林里的木材或木炭。越来越多的行业使用煤炭,因为它变得更便宜,因此比其他燃料更具成本效益,从铁生产到简单的面包店。 1800年城镇开始被煤制燃气灯点燃后不久,到1823年,52个城镇就有这些城镇的网络。在此期间,木材变得更加昂贵,实用性也不如煤炭,导致转换。此外,在十八世纪下半叶,运河以及这条铁路之后,使更多的煤炭运输成本更低,开辟了更广阔的市场。此外,铁路是主要需求的来源。当然,煤炭必须能够满足这种需求,历史学家追踪到与其他行业的几个深层联系,如下所述。蒸汽对煤炭行业产生了明显的影响,产生了巨大的需求:蒸汽机需要煤炭。但是对生产有直接影响,因为Newcomen和Savery率先在煤矿中使用蒸汽机来抽水,提升产品并提供其他支持。煤炭开采能够比以往更深入地使用蒸汽,从矿井中获取更多的煤并增加产量。这些发动机的一个关键因素是它们可能由劣质煤提供动力,因此矿山可以利用其中的废物并出售其主要材料。煤炭和蒸汽这两个行业对彼此都至关重要,并且共生。达比是第一个使用焦炭 – 一种加工煤的形式 – 在1709年冶炼铁。这一进展缓慢,主要是由于煤的成本。随后是铁的其他发展,这些也使用了煤炭。随着这种材料价格的下跌,铁成为主要的煤炭用户,对该物质的需求量大大增加,这两个行业相互促进。 Coalbrookdale开创了铁路电车,这使得煤炭更容易移动,无论是在矿山还是在通往买家的路上。煤炭使用和促进蒸汽机也需要铁.

英国邓迪大学历史学Assignment代写:工业革命中的煤炭

Before the eighteenth century, the UK – and other European countries – produced coal, but the number was limited. The coal pit is small and half is an open pit mine (there is only a large hole on the surface). Their market is only local, their business is localized, and usually just a sideline of a larger real estate. Drowning and suffocation are also very real problems (learn more about coal workers). During the industrial revolution, coal demand experienced a massive upgrade as coal production technology increased and transportation capacity increased. From 1700 to 1750, production increased by 50%, and by 1800 it increased by 100%. In the latter part of the first revolution, this growth rate soared to 500% in 1850 as steam power did occupy a place. Coal comes from many sources. As the population increases, the domestic market is also increasing, and people in the city need coal because they are not close to the wood or charcoal in the forest. More and more industries use coal because it becomes cheaper and therefore more cost effective than other fuels, from iron production to simple bakeries. Shortly after the towns began to be ignited by coal-fired gas lamps in 1800, by 1823, 52 towns had networks of these towns. During this period, wood became more expensive and less practical than coal, leading to conversion. In addition, in the second half of the eighteenth century, after the canal and the railway, more coal transportation costs were lower, opening up a broader market. In addition, the railway is the source of major demand. Of course, coal must be able to meet this demand, and historians track several deep connections with other industries, as described below. Steam has had a significant impact on the coal industry, creating a huge demand: steam engines need coal. But there is a direct impact on production, as Newcomen and Savery pioneered the use of steam engines in coal mines to pump water, upgrade products and provide other support. Coal mining can use steam more deeply than ever, taking more coal from the mine and increasing production. A key factor in these engines is that they may be powered by poor quality coal, so the mine can use the waste and sell its main materials. The two industries of coal and steam are vital to each other and are symbiotic. Darby was the first to use coke – a form of processing coal – smelting iron in 1709. This progress is slow, mainly due to the cost of coal. This was followed by other developments in iron, which also used coal. As the price of this material fell, iron became the main coal user, and the demand for the substance increased greatly. The two industries promoted each other. Coalbrookdale pioneered railroad trams that make coal easier to move, whether it’s in the mine or on the way to buyers. Coal use and promotion of steam engines also require iron

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