说谎在道德上是允许的吗？虽然撒谎可以被视为对公民社会的威胁，但似乎有几种情况下说谎似乎是最直观的道德选择。此外，如果采用足够宽泛的“撒谎”定义，则无论是因为自欺欺人的情况，还是因为我们人格的社会建构，似乎完全不可能逃避谎言。让我们更仔细地研究这些问题。首先，撒谎是有争议的。最近对该主题的讨论确定了撒谎的四个标准条件，但它们似乎都没有实际起作用。牢记提供谎言的确切定义的困难，让我们开始面对关于它的最重要的道德问题：说谎总是被鄙视？说谎被康德等作家视为对公民社会的威胁。一个容忍谎言的社会 – 论证 – 是一个信任受到破坏的社会，并且随之而来的是集体意识。这一点似乎很好，观察我度过生命大部分时间的两个国家，我可能很想证实这一点。在美国，谎言被视为一种主要的道德和法律错误，对政府的信任可能比意大利更大，在意大利，谎言更容忍。马基雅维利等人过去常常反思几个世纪以前信任的重要性。然而，他还得出结论，在某些情况下，欺骗是最好的选择。怎么可能？第一个较少引起争议的案例包括所谓的“白色谎言”。在某些情况下，告诉一个小谎言似乎比让别人担心不必要，或变得悲伤或失去动力似乎更好。虽然从康德伦理学的角度来看，这类行动似乎难以支持，但它们提供了支持结果主义的最明确的论据之一。然而，对康德绝对道德禁止撒谎的着名反对意见也来自对更具戏剧性的情景的考虑。这是一种场景。如果，通过在第二次世界大战期间向一些纳粹士兵说谎，你可以挽救某人的生命，而不会造成任何其他额外的伤害，那么你似乎应该撒谎。或者，考虑一下某人愤怒，失去控制的情况，问你在哪里可以找到你的熟人，这样她就可以杀死那个熟人;你知道熟人在哪里，撒谎会帮助你的朋友冷静下来：你说实话吗？一旦你开始考虑它，有很多情况下说谎似乎在道德上是可以原谅的。事实上，这通常是道德上的理由。当然，现在有一个问题：谁来说这个场景是否能让你撒谎？在很多情况下，人类似乎可以说服自己被排除采取某种行动的时候，而对于同龄人来说，他们实际上并非如此。这些情景的很大一部分可能涉及这种称为自欺欺人的现象。 Lance Armstrong可能刚刚提供了我们可以提供的最自欺欺人的案例之一。然而，谁会说你自欺欺人？通过想要判断撒谎的道德，我们可能已经把自己引入了最困难的怀疑之地。不仅说谎可能被视为自欺欺人的结果，也许是非自愿的结果。一旦我们扩大了我们对谎言的定义，我们就会发现谎言在我们的社会中根深蒂固。服装，化妆，整形手术，仪式：我们文化的很多方面都是“掩盖”某些事物会出现的方式。嘉年华也许是最能解决人类生存这一基本方面的节日。在你谴责所有撒谎之前，请再想一想。
Is lying ethically allowed? While lying can be seen as a threat to civil society, there seem to be several cases where lying seems to be the most intuitive moral choice. Moreover, if a broadly defined definition of “lie” is adopted, it seems impossible to escape lies, either because of self-deception or because of the social construction of our personality. Let us study these issues more closely. First of all, lying is controversial. Recent discussions on this topic have identified four standard conditions for lying, but none of them seem to actually work. Bearing in mind the difficulty of providing the exact definition of a lie, let us begin to face the most important ethical question about it: Is lie always despised? Lying is regarded by writers such as Kant as a threat to civil society. A society that tolerates lies – arguments – is a society in which trust is undermined, and it is followed by collective consciousness. This seems to be very good. Observing the two countries I have spent most of my life, I may want to confirm this. In the United States, lies are seen as a major moral and legal error, and trust in the government may be greater than in Italy, where lies are more tolerant. Machiavelli and others used to reflect on the importance of trust centuries ago. However, he also concluded that deception is the best option in some cases. How can it be? The first less controversial case included the so-called “white lie.” In some cases, it seems to be better to tell a little lie than to let others worry about it, or become sad or lose motivation. Although such actions seem difficult to support from the perspective of Kant’s ethics, they provide one of the clearest arguments to support outcomeism. However, the notion of opposition to Kant’s absolute moral prohibition lies also from consideration of more dramatic scenarios. This is a scene. If, by lying to some Nazi soldiers during the Second World War, you can save someone’s life without causing any additional damage, then you seem to be lying. Or, consider someone’s anger, loss of control, ask where you can find your acquaintance, so that she can kill the acquaintance; you know where the acquaintance is, lying will help your friend calm down: you tell the truth ? Once you start thinking about it, there are many situations where lying seems morally forgiven. In fact, this is usually a moral reason. Of course, there is a question now: Who is this scene that can make you lie? In many cases, humans seem to be able to convince themselves that they are excluded from taking certain actions, and for their peers, they are not. A large part of these scenarios may involve this phenomenon known as self-deception. Lance Armstrong may have just provided one of the most self-deceptive cases we can offer. However, who would say that you are deceiving yourself? By trying to judge the morality of lying, we may have introduced ourselves to the most difficult place of doubt. Not only lying may be seen as a result of self-deception, but may be an involuntary result. Once we expand our definition of lies, we will find that lies are deeply ingrained in our society. Clothing, make-up, plastic surgery, rituals: Many aspects of our culture are “masking” the way certain things will appear. Carnival is perhaps the best holiday to solve the basic aspects of human survival. Before you condemn all lying, please think again.