随着电子沿着链移动,运动或动量被用于产生三磷酸腺苷(ATP)。 ATP是许多细胞过程的主要能量来源,包括肌肉收缩和细胞分裂。更详细地说,当电子沿着链从蛋白质复合物传递到蛋白质复合物时,能量被释放并且氢离子(H +)被泵出线粒体基质(内膜内的隔室)并进入膜间空间(隔室之间的隔室)。内膜和外膜)。所有这些活动都在内膜上产生化学梯度(溶液浓度差异)和电梯度(电荷差异)。随着更多的H +离子被泵入膜间空间,更高浓度的氢原子将积聚并流回基质,同时为ATP或ATP合酶的产生提供动力。当ATP水解时,能量在细胞代谢期间释放。当电子沿着链从蛋白质复合物传递到蛋白质复合物直到它们被捐赠到氧气形成水中时,就会发生这种情况。 ATP通过与水反应而化学分解成二磷酸腺苷(ADP)。 ADP反过来用于合成ATP。细胞呼吸的第一步细胞呼吸的第一步是糖酵解。糖酵解发生在细胞质中并涉及将一分子葡萄糖分裂成两分子化学化合物丙酮酸。总之,产生两个ATP分子和两个NADH分子(高能量,携带电子的分子)。第二步,称为柠檬酸循环或克雷布斯循环,是当丙酮酸通过外线粒体膜和内线粒体膜转运到线粒体基质中时。丙酮酸在Krebs循环中被进一步氧化,产生另外两个ATP分子,以及NADH和FADH 2分子。来自NADH和FADH2的电子被转移到细胞呼吸的第三步,即电子传递链。 ATP合成酶利用H +离子运动产生的能量进入基质,将ADP转化为ATP。氧化分子以产生用于产生ATP的能量的这种过程称为氧化磷酸化。有四种蛋白质复合物是电子传递链的一部分,其功能是将电子传递到链中。第五种蛋白质复合物用于将氢离子输送回基质中。这些复合物嵌入线粒体内膜。

英国论文大学生物学Essay代写:电子输运链与能源生产

As electrons move along a chain, the movement or momentum is used to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the main source of energy for many cellular processes including muscle contraction and cell division. In more detail, as electrons are passed along a chain from protein complex to protein complex, energy is released and hydrogen ions (H+) are pumped out of the mitochondrial matrix (compartment within the inner membrane) and into the intermembrane space (compartment between the inner and outer membranes). All this activity creates both a chemical gradient (difference in solution concentration) and an electrical gradient (difference in charge) across the inner membrane. As more H+ ions are pumped into the intermembrane space, the higher concentration of hydrogen atoms will build up and flow back to the matrix simultaneously powering the production of ATP or ATP synthase. Energy is released during cell metabolism when ATP is hydrolyzed. This happens when electrons are passed along the chain from protein complex to protein complex until they are donated to oxygen forming water. ATP chemically decomposes to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by reacting with water. ADP is in turn used to synthesize ATP. The First Steps of Cellular Respiration The first step of cellular respiration is glycolysis. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and involves the splitting of one molecule of glucose into two molecules of the chemical compound pyruvate. In all, two molecules of ATP and two molecules of NADH (high energy, electron carrying molecule) are generated. The second step, called the citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle, is when pyruvate is transported across the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. Pyruvate is further oxidized in the Krebs cycle producing two more molecules of ATP, as well as NADH and FADH 2 molecules. Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred to the third step of cellular respiration, the electron transport chain. ATP synthase uses the energy generated from the movement of H+ ions into the matrix for the conversion of ADP to ATP. This process of oxidizing molecules to generate energy for the production of ATP is called oxidative phosphorylation. There are four protein complexes that are part of the electron transport chain that functions to pass electrons down the chain. A fifth protein complex serves to transport hydrogen ions back into the matrix. These complexes are embedded within the inner mitochondrial membrane.

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