因为中世纪时代与我们现在称之为“欧洲”的地理实体有着千丝万缕的联系,所以将中世纪的定义与该实体的发展中的重要阶段联系起来是完全有效的。但这给我们带来了各种挑战。欧洲不是一个独立的地质大陆;它是被称为欧亚大陆的较大陆地的一部分。纵观历史,它的边界经常发生变化,而且它们今天仍在变化。在中世纪,它并不被普遍认为是一个独特的地理实体;我们现在称之为欧洲的土地更常被视为“基督教世界”。在整个中世纪,没有任何一支政治力量可以控制整个非洲大陆。由于存在这些限制,定义与我们现在称之为欧洲相关的广泛历史时代的参数变得越来越困难。但也许这种缺乏特征的功能可以帮助我们定义。当罗马帝国处于高峰时,它主要由地中海周围的土地组成。当哥伦布历史性地航行到“新世界”时,“旧世界”从意大利延伸到斯堪的纳维亚半岛,从英国延伸到巴尔干半岛及其他地方。欧洲不再是狂野的,野性的边界,居住着“野蛮人”,经常是移民文化。它现在是“文明的”(尽管仍然经常处于混乱状态),政府基本稳定,建立了商业和学习中心,以及基督教的主导地位。因此,中世纪时代可能被认为是欧洲成为地缘政治实体的时期。

英国曼彻斯特地质Essay代写基督教世界

Because the medieval era is inextricably linked to what we now call “Europe” geographical entities, it is completely effective to link the definition of the Middle Ages with the important stages in the development of the entity. But this brings us all kinds of challenges. Europe is not an independent geological continent; it is part of a larger land known as Eurasia. Throughout history, its boundaries have changed frequently, and they are still changing today. In the Middle Ages, it was not generally considered to be a unique geographic entity; what we now call Europe is more often regarded as the Christian world. Throughout the Middle Ages, no political force could control the entire African continent. Because of these limitations, it has become increasingly difficult to define parameters in a wide historical era that we now call Europe. But perhaps this lack of features can help us define. When the Roman Empire was at its peak, it was mainly composed of land around the Mediterranean. When Columbus sailed historicly to the “new world,” the “old world” extended from Italy to Scandinavia, from Britain to the Balkans and elsewhere. Europe is no longer a wild, wild border, inhabited by “barbarians”, often immigrant culture. It is now civilized(although still often in chaos), the government is basically stable, establishing business and learning centers, and the dominant position of Christianity. Therefore, the medieval era may be considered a period in which Europe became a geopolitical entity.

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