数十年来,内向和外向一直是心理学理论的主题。今天,研究个性的心理学家经常将内向性和外向性视为所谓的五因素人格模型的一部分。根据这个理论,人们的个性可以根据他们五个人格特质的水平来描述:外向性(内向是相反的),适合性(利他主义和对他人的关注),责任心(某人如何组织和负责),神经质(有多少人经历负面情绪),以及对体验的开放性(包括想象力和好奇心等特征)。在这个理论中,人格特质在一个频谱范围内 – 例如,你可能更外向,更内向,或者介于两者之间。如果你有兴趣了解五因素模型中的人格特质,你可以采取这个简短的,有10个问题的问答。使用五因素模型的心理学家认为外向性具有多个组成部分。那些更外向的人倾向于更社交,更健谈,更自信,更有可能寻求兴奋,并且被认为会经历更积极的情绪。另一方面,更内向的人倾向于更安静和更多在社交互动中保留。然而,重要的是,羞怯与内向不同:内向者在社交场合可以是害羞或焦虑的,但情况并非总是如此。此外,作为一个内向的人并不意味着某人是反社会的。正如苏珊·凯恩,畅销书作家和内向自己在接受科学美国人采访时解释的,“我们不是反社会的,我们是不同的社会,没有我的家人和亲密的朋友,我生活得不可开交,但我也渴望独处“。

英国牛津大学心理学Assignment代写:五因素模式

Introversion and extroversion have been the subject of psychological theories for decades. Today, psychologists who study personality often see introversion and extroversion as part of what is known as the five-factor model of personality. According to this theory, people’s personalities can be described based on their levels of five personality traits: extroversion (of which introversion is the opposite), agreeableness (altruism and concern for others), conscientiousness (how organized and responsible someone is), neuroticism (how much someone experiences negative emotions), and openness to experience (which includes traits such as imagination and curiosity). In this theory, personality traits range along a spectrum — for example, you might be more extroverted, more introverted, or somewhere in-between.If you’re interested in learning about your personality traits in the five-factor model, you can take this short, 10-question quiz.Psychologists who use the five-factor model see the trait of extroversion as having multiple components. Those who are more extroverted tend to be more social, more talkative, more assertive, more likely to seek out excitement, and are thought to experience more positive emotions.People who are more introverted, on the other hand, tend to be quieter and more reserved during social interactions. Importantly, however, shyness isn’t the same thing as introversion: introverts can be shy or anxious in social situations, but this isn’t always the case. Additionally, being an introvert doesn’t mean that someone is antisocial. As Susan Cain, bestselling author and introvert herself, explains in an interview with Scientific American, “We’re not anti-social; we’re differently social. I can’t live without my family and close friends, but I also crave solitude.”

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