有机建筑是美国建筑师弗兰克劳埃德赖特(1867-1959)用来描述他对建筑设计的环保综合方法的术语。这种哲学源于赖特导师路易沙利文的想法,后者认为“形式遵循功能”。赖特认为“形式与功能是一体的”。作者JóseanFigueroa认为,赖特的哲学源于拉尔夫沃尔多爱默生的美国超验主义。在Spring Green中,Wright设计的结构现在是Taliesin游客中心,就像是威斯康星河上的一座桥梁或码头。同样,Taliesin West的屋顶线沿着亚利桑那州的山丘向下延伸,沿着向下的路径前往液体沙漠池。赖特的建筑寻求与土地的和谐,无论是沙漠还是草原。有机建筑致力于统一空间,融合内部和外部,并创造一个和谐的建筑环境,不是从自然中分离或占主导地位,而是作为一个统一的整体。赖特并不关心建筑风格,因为他相信每栋建筑都应该从环境中自然生长。然而,赖特在“草原屋”中发现的建筑元素 – 为草原建造的房屋有悬垂的屋檐,天窗和一层漫无边际的开放式平面图 – 是赖特许多设计中的元素。 Frank Lloyd Wright在亚利桑那州的Spring Green,Wisconsin和Taliesin West拥有Taliesin,体现了建筑师的有机建筑和生活方式理论。 “建筑设计的哲学,在20世纪初出现。断言建筑的结构和外观应该建立在有机形态的基础上,并应与自然环境相协调。” – 建筑与建筑词典。在二十世纪后半叶,现代主义建筑师将有机建筑的概念提升到了新的高度。通过使用新形式的混凝土和悬臂桁架,建筑师可以创建没有可见梁或柱的俯冲拱门。 ParqueGüell和西班牙人AntoniGaudí的许多其他作品被称为有机作品。现代方法不像Frank Lloyd Wright那样关注在周围环境中整合建筑。西班牙建筑师圣地亚哥·卡拉特拉瓦(Santiago Calatrava)的世界贸易中心交通枢纽可能代表了现代主义的有机建筑方“白色翅膀的Oculus是一个新的塔楼和纪念池中心的有机形式,”是“建筑文摘”所描述的,“在2001年倒塌的两个地点。”现代有机建筑从不是线性或刚性几何。相反,波浪线和曲线形状表明自然形态。现代主义有机建筑方法的典型例子包括丹麦建筑师JørnUtzon的悉尼歌剧院和杜勒斯国际机场以及由芬兰建筑师Eero Saarinen俯冲的翼状屋顶。房子不应该是排在一排的箱子。如果房子是建筑,它必须成为景观的自然部分。 “土地是最简单的建筑形式,”弗兰克劳埃德赖特写道。赖特的祖先是威尔士人,而“Taliesin”则是威尔士语。 “塔里辛,一个德鲁伊,是亚瑟王圆桌会员,”赖特说。 “这意味着’闪亮的眉毛’,这个现在称为Taliesin的地方就像山顶上的眉毛,不是在山顶上,因为我相信你永远不应该直接建立在任何东西之上。如果你建立在顶部在山上,你失去了山丘。如果你在山顶的一侧建造,你就拥有了山丘和你所渴望的卓越。你看到了吗?好吧,Taliesin是那样的眉头。“ Taliesin的两个属性都是有机的,因为它们的设计适应环境。水平线模仿山丘和海岸线的水平范围。屋顶的坡度模仿了土地的坡度。如果你无法前往威斯康星州和亚利桑那州的莱特家园,也许去宾夕法尼亚州南部的短途旅行将照亮有机建筑的本质。许多人都听说过Fallingwater,这座私人住宅坐落在山坡上。通过使用现代材料 – 钢和玻璃 – 悬臂结构使得结构看起来像沿着熊润瀑布跳过的光滑混凝土石头。非常靠近Fallingwater,另一个由Wright设计的房屋,Kentuck Knob,可能比其邻居更内陆,但当人们在房子周围走动时,屋顶几乎变成了森林地面。仅这两个房屋就是Wright最好的有机建筑和建筑的典范。

英国诺丁汉大学建筑大学Assignment代写:有机建筑作为设计工具

Organic Architecture is a term that American architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) used to describe his environmentally integrated approach to architectural design. The philosophy grew from the ideas of Wright’s mentor, Louis Sullivan, who believed that “form follows function.” Wright argued that “form and function are one.” Author Jósean Figueroa argues that Wright’s philosophy grew from the American Transcendentalism of Ralph Waldo Emerson. In Spring Green, the structure Wright designed that is now the Taliesin Visitor’s Center is like a bridge or a dock on the Wisconsin River Likewise, the roof line of Taliesin West follows the Arizona hills and steps in downward paths to pools of liquid desert. Wright’s architecture seeks harmony with the land, whether it be desert or prairie. Organic architecture strives to unify space, to blend interiors and exteriors, and create a harmonic built environment not separate or dominant from nature but as a unified whole. Wright was not concerned with architectural style, because he believed that every building should grow naturally from its environment. Nevertheless, Wright’s architectural elements found in the “prairie house” — homes built for the prairie have overhanging eaves, clerestory windows, and one-story rambling open floor plan — are elements found in many of Wright’s designs. Frank Lloyd Wright’s own homes, Taliesin in Spring Green, Wisconsin and Taliesin West in Arizona, exemplify the architect’s theories of organic architecture and lifestyle. “A philosophy of architectural design, emerging in the early 20th cent., asserting that in structure and appearance a building should be based on organic forms and should harmonize with its natural environment.” — Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. In the last half of the twentieth century, Modernist architects took the concept of organic architecture to new heights. By using new forms of concrete and cantilever trusses, architects could create swooping arches without visible beams or pillars. Parque Güell and many other works by the Spanish Antoni Gaudí have been called organic. Modern approaches are less concerned with integrating architecture within the surrounding environment as did Frank Lloyd Wright. The World Trade Center Transportation Hub by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava may well represent a modernist approach to organic architecture. “The white winged Oculus is an organic form in the center of a new complex of towers, and memorial pools,” is how Architectural Digest described it, “at the sites of the two that fell in 2001.” Modern organic buildings are never linear or rigidly geometric. Instead, wavy lines and curved shapes suggest natural forms. Classic examples of modernist approaches to organic architecture include the Sydney Opera House by Danish architect Jørn Utzon and the Dulles International Airport with its swooping, wing-like roofs by Finnish architect Eero Saarinen. Houses should not be boxes set together row on row. If a house is to be architecture, it must become a natural part of the landscape. “The land is the simplest form of architecture,” wrote Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright’s ancestry was Welsh, and “Taliesin” is a Welsh word. “Taliesin, a Druid, was a member of King Arthur’s Round Table,” Wright has said. “It means ‘shining brow’ and this place now called Taliesin is built like a brow on the edge of the hill, not on top of the hill, because I believe you should never build on top of anything directly. If you build on top of the hill, you lose the hill. If you build on one side of the top, you have the hill and the eminence that you desire. You see? Well, Taliesin is a brow like that.” Both Taliesin properties are organic because their designs adapt to the environment. Horizontal lines mimic the horizontal range of hills and shoreline. The slope of a roof mimics the slope of the land. If you can’t get to tour the Wright homes in Wisconsin and Arizona, perhaps a short trip to southern Pennsylvania would illuminate the nature of organic architecture. Many people have heard of Fallingwater, the private home nestled on top of a hillside stream. Through the use of modern materials — steel and glass — cantilever construction enabled the structure to appear like smooth concrete stones skipping along the Bear Run waterfalls. Very near Fallingwater, another Wright-designed home, Kentuck Knob, may be more landlocked than its neighbor, yet the roof almost becomes the forest floor as one walks around the house. These two homes alone exemplify organic architecture and construction at Wright’s best.

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