回声定位是形态学(物理特征)和声纳(SOund NAvigation和Ranging)的结合使用,允许蝙蝠使用声音“看到”。蝙蝠使用它的喉部产生通过其嘴或鼻子发出的超声波。有些蝙蝠也会用舌头产生咔哒声。蝙蝠听到返回的回声,并比较信号发送和返回之间的时间以及声音频率的变化,以形成其周围环境的地图。虽然没有蝙蝠完全失明,但动物可以在绝对黑暗中使用声音来“看”。蝙蝠耳朵的敏感性使其能够通过被动聆听来寻找猎物。蝙蝠耳脊充当声学菲涅耳透镜,允许蝙蝠听到地栖昆虫的运动和昆虫翅膀的颤动。一些蝙蝠的身体适应是可见的。皱巴巴的肉质鼻子充当扩音器以投射声音。蝙蝠外耳的复杂形状,褶皱和皱纹有助于接收和漏斗传入的声音。一些关键的改编是内部的。耳朵包含许多接收器,允许蝙蝠检测微小的频率变化。蝙蝠的大脑映射信号,甚至可以解释飞行对回声定位的多普勒效应。就在蝙蝠发出声音之前,内耳的微小骨头分开以降低动物的听觉敏感度,因此它不会自我震耳欲聋。一旦喉部肌肉收缩,中耳放松,耳朵可以接收回声。

英国思克莱德大学物理学Essay代写:蝙蝠回声定位如何工作

Echolocation is the combined use of morphology (physical features) and sonar (SOund NAvigation and Ranging) that allows bats to “see” using sound. A bat uses its larynx to produce ultrasonic waves that are emitted through its mouth or nose. Some bats also produce clicks using their tongues. The bat hears the echoes that are returned and compares the time between when the signal was sent and returned and the shift in the frequency of the sound to form a map of its surroundings. While no bat is completely blind, the animal can use sound to “see” in absolute darkness. The sensitive nature of a bat’s ears enables it to find prey by passive listening, too. Bat ear ridges act as an acoustic Fresnel lens, allowing a bat to hear the movement of ground-dwelling insects and the flutter of insect wings. Some of a bat’s physical adaptations are visible. A wrinkled fleshy nose acts as a megaphone to project sound. The complex shape, folds, and wrinkles of a bat’s outer ear help it receive and funnel incoming sounds. Some key adaptations are internal. The ears contain numerous receptors that allow bats to detect tiny frequency changes. A bat’s brain maps the signals and even accounts for the Doppler effect flying has on echolocation. Just before a bat emits a sound, the tiny bones of the inner ear separate to reduce the animal’s hearing sensitivity so it doesn’t deafen itself. Once the larynx muscles contract, the middle ear relaxes and the ears can receive the echo.

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