在基本力量中，重力具有最远的范围，但它是实际量级中最弱的。它是一种纯粹的吸引力，甚至通过“空”空间来到达彼此的两个质量。它使行星围绕太阳和月球围绕地球轨道运行。在广义相对论的理论下描述了引力，它将它定义为质量对象周围的时空曲率。反过来，这种曲率产生了一种情况，即最小能量的路径朝向另一个质量对象。电磁是粒子与电荷的相互作用。静止的带电粒子通过静电力相互作用，而在运动中它们通过电力和磁力相互作用。长期以来，电力和磁力被认为是不同的力量，但最终由James Clerk Maxwell在1864年根据麦克斯韦方程统一。在20世纪40年代，量子电动力学用量子物理学巩固了电磁学。电磁学可能是我们世界中最明显的普遍力量，因为它可以在合理的距离和相当大的力量下影响事物。弱相互作用是一种非常强大的力，它作用于原子核的尺度。它会导致β衰变等现象。它已被电磁学整合为一种称为“电弱互动”的单一互动。弱相互作用是由W玻色子（实际上有两种类型，W +和W-玻色子）以及Z玻色子介导的。最强大的力量是恰当命名的强相互作用，这是除其他外，使核子（质子和中子）结合在一起的力量。例如，在氦原子中，它足够强以将两个质子结合在一起，尽管它们的正电荷使它们相互排斥。本质上，强相互作用允许称为胶子的粒子将夸克结合在一起，从而首先产生核子。胶子也可以与其他胶子相互作用，这使得强相互作用在理论上无限远，尽管它的主要表现都是在亚原子水平上。
Of the fundamental forces, gravity has the farthest reach but it’s the weakest in actual magnitude. It is a purely attractive force which reaches through even the “empty” void of space to draw two masses toward each other. It keeps the planets in orbit around the sun and the moon in orbit around the Earth. Gravitation is described under the theory of general relativity, which defines it as the curvature of spacetime around an object of mass. This curvature, in turn, creates a situation where the path of least energy is toward the other object of mass. Electromagnetism is the interaction of particles with an electrical charge. Charged particles at rest interact through electrostatic forces, while in motion they interact through both electrical and magnetic forces. For a long time, the electric and magnetic forces were considered to be different forces, but they were finally unified by James Clerk Maxwell in 1864, under Maxwell’s equations. In the 1940s, quantum electrodynamics consolidated electromagnetism with quantum physics. Electromagnetism is perhaps the most obviously prevalent force in our world, as it can affect things at a reasonable distance and with a fair amount of force. The weak interaction is a very powerful force that acts on the scale of the atomic nucleus. It causes phenomena such as beta decay. It has been consolidated with electromagnetism as a single interaction called the “electroweak interaction.” The weak interaction is mediated by the W boson (there are actually two types, the W+ and W- bosons) and also the Z boson. The strongest of the forces is the aptly-named strong interaction, which is the force that, among other things, keeps nucleons (protons and neutrons) bound together. In the helium atom, for example, it is strong enough to bind two protons together despite the fact that their positive electrical charges cause them to repulse each other. In essence, the strong interaction allows particles called gluons to bind together quarks to create the nucleons in the first place. Gluons can also interact with other gluons, which gives the strong interaction a theoretically infinite distance, although it’s major manifestations are all at the subatomic level.