在很多情况下，人类似乎使自己相信自己被拒绝采取某种行动，而在同伴看来，他们实际上并未这样做。 在这些情况中，很大一部分可能涉及称为自欺欺人的现象。 兰斯·阿姆斯特朗（Lance Armstrong）可能只是提供了我们可以提供的最自欺欺人的案例之一。 然而，谁能说你在欺骗自己呢？ 通过判断谎言的道德性，我们可能使自己陷入了最困难的怀疑之地之一。
In many cases, humans seem to convince themselves that they have been refused some action, and from the point of view of their peers, they have not actually done so. A large proportion of these situations may involve what is known as self-deception. Lance Armstrong may just provide one of the most self-deceiving cases we can offer. However, who can say that you are deceiving yourself? By judging the morality of lies, we may put ourselves in one of the most difficult places of doubt.